Vaccine candidate(developer/sponsor)TechnologyPhase of trial(participants)Adverse effectsImmune responseLocationDuration
AZD1222(University of Oxford, AstraZeneca)adenovirus vectorPhase II–III randomized, interventional (10,260)pending Phase I reportpending Phase I reportUnited KingdomMay 2020 to August 2021
Ad5-nCoV(CanSino Biologics, Institute of Biotechnology of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences)recombinant adenovirus type 5 vectorPhase II interventional trial for dosing and side effects (500)Moderate over 7 days: 81% had fever, pain, fatigueNeutralizing antibody and T cell responsesChinaMarch 2020 to December 2020
mRNA-1273(Moderna, US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, BARDA)lipid nanoparticle dispersion containing messenger RNAPhase II dose-confirmation to evaluate safety, toxicity, and immunogenicity (600)^ fever, fatigue, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site^ dose-dependent neutralizing antibody response on two-dose schedule; undetermined durabilityUnited StatesMay 2020 to August 2021
BNT162 (a1, b1, b2, c2)(BioNTech, Fosun PharmaPfizer)RNAPhase I–II of four vaccines, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, vaccine candidate-selection (7600)pending Phase I reportpending Phase I reportGermany
United States
April 2020 to May 2021
CoronaVac(Sinovac Biotech)inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virusPhase I–II randomized, double-blinded, single-center, placebo-controlled in Xuzhou (744); Phase I–II in Renqiu (422)pending Phase I reportpending Phase I reportChinaApril 2020 to December 2020 in Xuzhou; May to July 2020 in Renqiu
INO-4800(Inovio PharmaceuticalsCEPI, Korea National Institute of Health, International Vaccine Institute)DNA plasmid delivered by electroporationPhase I–II (40)pending Phase I reportpending Phase I reportUnited States
South Korea
April 2020 to November 2020
unnamed(Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences)inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virusPhase I–II randomized, double-blinded, single-center, placebo-controlled in Sichuan (942)ChinaJune 2020 to September 2021
AG0301-COVID19(AnGes Inc., AMED)DNA plasmidPhase I–II non-randomized, single-center, two doses (30)JapanJune 2020 to July 2021
COVID-19/aAPC(Shenzhen Geno-Immune Medical Institute)lentiviral vector, pathogen-specific artificial antigen presenting dendritic cellsPhase I (100)ChinaMarch 2020 to 2023
LV-SMENP-DC(Shenzhen Geno-Immune Medical Institute)lentiviral minigene vaccine, dendritic cells modified with lentiviral vectorPhase I (100)ChinaMarch 2020 to 2023
unnamed(Beijing Institute of Biological Products, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products)inactivated COVID-19 virus (vero cells)Phase I (288)ChinaApril 2020 to November 2021
LNP-nCoVsaRNA(Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at Imperial College)messenger RNAPhase I randomized trial (105), with dose escalation study (15) and expanded safety study (at least 200)United KingdomJune 2020 to July 2021
NVX-CoV2373(Novavax)SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein nanoparticle with adjuvantPhase I (131)AustraliaMay 2020 to July 2021
Gam-COVID-Vac Lyo(Gamaleya Research Institute)non-replicating viral vectorPhase I (38)RussiaJune 2020 to August 2020
GX-19(Genexine Consortium, International Vaccine Institute)DNAPhase I (40)South KoreaJune 2020 to June 2022
SCB-2019(Clover Biopharm, GlaxoSmithKline)spike protein trimeric subunit with GSK adjuvantPhase I (150)AustraliaJune 2020 to March 2021
COVAX-19(Vaxine Pty Ltd)recombinant proteinPhase I (40)AustraliaJune 2020 to July 2021
CVnCoV(CureVacCEPI)messenger RNAPhase I (168)Belgium, GermanyJune 2020 to August 2021
unnamed(Academy of Military Sciences, Walvax Biotech)messenger RNAPhase I (168)ChinaJune 2020 to December 2021
unnamed(Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biologic Pharmacy Co. Ltd.)recombinant protein subunitPhase I (50)ChinaJune 2020 to September 2021
unnamedMedicago (Governments of Canada and Quebec)plant-derived virus-like particle, recombinant, using GSK adjuvantPhase I, randomized, dose-ranging (180)CanadaJuly 2020 to April 2021